# Thermodynamics (physics) full forms/abbreviations

Definition of thermodynamics
thermodynamics deals with the transfer of energy from one place to another and from one form to another.

here are the all full forms / abbreviation & important definitions in thermodynamics :-

 Abbreviation Full Form IP ISOTHERMAL PROCESS AP ADIABATIC PROCESS AT APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS KS KELVIN'S STATEMEMT CS CLAUSIUS STATEMENT FLT FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ICE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE ECE EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE GEM GIBBS ENERGY MINIMIZATION CT CARNOT THEORM CHE CARNOT HEAT ENGINE HP HEAT PUMP IG IDEAL GAS IE INTERNAL ENERGY CT COMPUTATIONAL THERMODYNAMICS ICAT INERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TH TRANSMISSION OF HEAT SP SPONTENIOUS PROCESS MP MASS PRODUCTION FD FLUID DYNAMICS CPM CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELING CT COMPUTATIONAL THERMODYNAMICS IACT INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS EIT EXTENDED IRREVERSIVLE THERMODYNAMICS

THERMODYNAMICS' IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS:-

## FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:-

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS IS A VERSION OF THE LAW OF CONSERVATION  OF ENERGY. IT STATES THAT ENERGY CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR BE DESTROYED, IT CAN BE CONVERTED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER.

heat energy given to a system is used in the following two ways
1. in increasing the temperature and hence internal energy of the system.
2. in doing work by the system
if    ∇Q=heat energy given to the system
∇U= increase in the internal energy of the system
∇W= work done by the system
then, ∇Q=∇U+∇W is the mathematical statement of first law of thermodynamics.

• Internal energy of a system may be potential as well as kinetic energy. the kinetic energy arises due to molecular motion which may be translational, rotational and vibrational.
• first law of thermodynamics is equivalent to principle of conservation of energy.
ISOTHERMAL PROCESS: if the changes are taking place in a system in such a way that temperature of the system remains constant throughout the change, then the process is said to be isothermal.

ADIABATIC PROCESS: if the changes are taking place in a system in such a way that there is no exchange of heat energy between the system and the surrounding, then the process is said to be an adiabatic process.

example of adiabatic process: when carbon dioxide is suddenly expanded then it is changed into dry ice.

### SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:

the first law of thermodynamics guarantees that in a thermodynamic process, energy will be conserved. But this law does not tell whether a given process in which energy is conserved will take place or not.
The following two forms are worth mentioning:

KELVIN'S STATEMENT- according to kelvin whole of the heat can never be converted into work.
CLAUSIS STATEMENT- heat by itself can not flow from a body at lower temperature to a body at higher temperature.

CARNOT THEOREM:
1. All the reversible heat engine operating between the same source and sink have same efficiency independent of nature of working substance.
2. No heat engine operating between two given temperature will have more efficiency than a reversible heat engine operating between the same two temperatures.
Efficiency of ideal Carnot heat engine: [ η= 1-T1/T2], T1 & T2 being the temperature of source and sink.